Estimating Groundwater Mixing Ratios from Vertical Flux Processes due to Excessive Groundwater Pumping Using Hydrogeochemical Parameters and Nitrate Concentrations in the Bandung Basin, Indonesia

Main Article Content

Ahmad Taufiq
Takahiro Hosono
Irwan Iskandar
Agus Jatnika Effendi
Lambok Maringan Hutasoit


One crucial task in groundwater research and management is the estimation of groundwater mixing ratios. Here, estimations of mixing ratios are presented systematically and spatially for shallow and deep groundwater in some areas of excessive groundwater pumping with different magnitudes of groundwater drawdown. The mixing ratios are estimated using two methods: (1) the total mixing ratio using all parameters, and (2) the mixing ratio using nitrate concentrations. The values for the total mixing ratio indicate that mixing between the shallow and the deep groundwater clearly occurs in all three depression areas, but with different ratios. The spatial distribution map of the total mixing ratio clearly shows that the largest mixing ratio occurs near the center of the cone of depression, and that the ratio decreases gradually away from the center of the depression area. There is a positive correlation among total mixing ratios, CFC-12 concentrations, and modeled vertical flux. Remarkably, the highest correlation is found between the correlation of the total mixing ratio and magnitude of vertical flux in the largest drawdown area. Meanwhile, comparison of the mixing ratio calculations by the different methods showed insignificant correlation which means nitrate is ineffective as the prevailing contaminant tracer for deep groundwater in this basin. Overall, this study concludes that the method of total mixing ratio using all chemical parameters is the most effective and consistent with previous methods. This study provides further proof that groundwater mixing between the shallow and deep groundwater systems has clearly occurred in the Bandung basin as an impact of excessive groundwater pumping.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Original Scientific Papers


BAKORSOTANAL (2009): Land use map, sub Bandung region, scale 1: 50.000. Agency of geospatial information: Republic of Indonesia.

BEYERLE, U., AESCHBA, C.H., HERTIG, W., HOFER, M., IMBODEN, D.M., BAUR, H. & KIPFER, R. (1999): Infiltration of river water to a shallow aquifer investigated with 3H/3He, noble gases and CFCs.– Journal of Hydrology, 220, 169–185.

BÖHLKE, J.K., WANTY, R., TUTTLE, M., DELIN, G. & LANDON, M. (2002): Denitrification in the recharge area and discharge area of a transient agricultural nitrate plume in a glacial outwash sand aquifer, Minnesota.– Water Resource Research, 38, 10–26.

BURNETT, W.C, PETERSON, R.N, SANTOS, I.R. & HICKS, R.W. (2010): Use of automated radon measurements for rapid assessment of groundwater flow into Florida streams.– Journal of Hydrology, 380, Issues 3–4, 298–304. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.11.005

CASCIOTTI, K.L., SIGMAN, D.M., GALANTER H.M., BÖHLKE, J.K. & HILKERT, A. (2002): Measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in seawater and freshwater using the denitrifier method.– Analytical Chemistry, 74, 4905–4912.

FOSTER, S.S.D. & CHILTON, P.J. (2003): Groundwater: the process and global significance of aquifer degradation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.– Biological Sciences, 358, 1957–1972.

HAN, D.H., LIANG, X., JIN, M.G., CURRELL, M.J., SONG, X.F. & LIU, C.M (2010): Evaluation of groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and mixing behavior in the Daying and Qicun geothermal systems, Xinzhou Basin.– Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 189, 92–104. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.10.011

HOSONO, T., DELINOM, R., NAKANO, T., KAGABU, M., & SHIMADA, J. (2011): Evolution model of δ34S and δ18O in dissolved sulfate in volcanic fan aquifers from recharge to coastal zone and through the Jakarta urban area, Indonesia.– Science of the Total Environment, 409, 2541–2554.

HOSONO, T., TOKUNAGA, T., KAGABU, M., NAKATA, H., ORISHIKIDA, T., LIN, I. & SHIMADA, J (2013): The use of δ15N and δ18O tracers with an understanding of groundwater fl ow dynamics for evaluating the origins and attenuation mechanisms of nitrate pollution.– Water Research, 47, 2661–2675.

HOSONO, T., TOKUNAGA, T., TSUSHIMAA, A. & SHIMADA, J. (2014): Combined use of δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S tracers to study anaerobic bacterial processes in groundwater flow systems.– Water Research, 54, 284–296.

HUTASOIT, L.M. (2009): Groundwater condition of Bandung area, with and without artificial recharge: Numerical simulation results.– Indonesian Journal on Geoscience, 4, 1777–188 (In Indonesian).

JAGO-ON, K.A.B., KANEKO, S., FUJIKURA, R., FUJIWARA, A., IMAI, T., MATSUMOTO, T., ZHANG, J., TANIKAWA, H., TANAKA, K,, LEE, B., & TANIGUCHI, M. (2009): Urbanization and subsurface environmental issues: an attempt at DPSIR model application in Asian cities.– Science of the Total Environment, 407, 308–310.
doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.08.004

KAPLAN, N. & MAGARITZ, M. (1986): A nitrogen-isotope study of the sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater of the Pleistocene coastal plain aquifer, Israel.– Water Research, 20, 131–135.
doi: 10.1016/0043-1354(86)90002-3

KENDALL, C. (1998): Tracing nitrogen sources and cycling in catchments.– In: KENDALL, C. & McDONNELL, J.J. (eds.): Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology. Elsevier. Science B.V., Amsterdam, 519–576. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-81546-0.50023-9

KREITLER, C.W. (1979): Nitrogen-isotope ratio studies of soils and groundwater nitrate from alluvial fan aquifers in Texas.– Journal of Hydrology, 42, 147–170.

RUEEDI, J., PURTSCHERT, R., BEYERLE, U., ALBERICH, C. & KIPFER, R. (2005): Estimating groundwater mixing ratios and their uncertainties using a statistical multi parameter approach.– Journal of Hydrology, 305, 1–14. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.06.044

SIGMAN, D.M., CASCIOTTI, K.L., ANDREANI, M., BARFORD, C., GALANTER, M. & BÖHLKE, J.K. (2001): A bacterial method for the nitrogen isotopic analysis of nitrate in seawater and freshwater.– Analytical Chemistry, 73, 145–153. doi: 10.1021/ac010088e

SINGLETON, M.J., ESSER, B.K., MORAN, J.E., HUDSON, G.B., MCNAB, W.W. & HARTER, T. (2007): Saturated zone denitrification: potential for natural attenuation of nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater under dairy operations.– Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 759–765. doi: 10.1021/es061253g

KANEKO, S. & YOSHIKOSHI, A. (2009): Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface thermal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, Thailand.– Science of the Total Environment, 407, 3153–3164. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.06.064

TAUFIQ, A., EFFENDI, A.J., ISKANDAR, I., HOSONO, T. & HUTASOIT, L.M. (2018): Controlling Factors and Driving Mechanisms Nitrate Contamination in Groundwater System of Bandung Basin, Indonesia, deduced by combined use of stable isotope ratios, CFC age dating, and socioeconomic parameters. An article in press. - Water Research Journal. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.049

TAUFIQ, A., HOSONO, T., IDE, K., KAGABU M., ISKANDAR, I., EFFENDI A.J., HUTASOIT, L.M. & SHIMADA, J. (2017): Impact of excessive groundwater pumping on rejuvenation age processes in the Bandung basin, Indonesia as determined by hydrogeochemistry and modeling.– Hydrogeology Journal, 26, 1263–1279. doi: 10.1007/s10040-017-1696-8

WAGNER, W. & SUKRISNO, X. (1998): Natural groundwater quality and groundwater contamination in the Bandung basin, Indonesia.– Indonesia Bulletin of Environmental geology, 23.

WIRAKUSUMAH, A.D. & DANARYANTO, H. (2004): Groundwater management in Indonesia Case Study: Groundwater conservation in Jakarta, Bandung and Semarang. 41st Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) (Tsukuba, Japan).