Traces of drilling predation in the Badenian Mollusks from the Rakovica stream (Belgrade, Serbia)

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Meri Ganić
Predrag Radović
Ljupko Rundić
Katarina Bradić
Slobodan Knežević


The palaeoecology of fossil molluscs of Serbia is insufficiently studied. Drilling predation indicatesinteractive relationships among Middle Miocene Badenian molluscs from the Rakovicasands. These sands are present in the Rakovica stream valley (southern part of Belgrade),andwell-known data about the fauna has existed since the end of the XIX century. The collectedmaterial (one bulk sample) from the sectionwas used for studies that included 2301 shells ofmolluscs (1617 of gastropods and 684 of bivalves). Among them were specimens with predatorydrill holes. Determining the value of drilling frequency (DF) and prey effectiveness (PE) facilitatesidentification of the relationshipbetween shell-drilling predators and their prey. Basedon analysis of the overall association, carnivorous gastropods were dominantin the sample,comprising more than fifty percent (52.32%) of all gastropod specimens. In addition, they constitutea large percentage of the total sample (43.19%). The largest number of victims was observedamong bivalves, which are indicated by a DF of 16.96%. The results were compared withother localities of Miocene age in Paratethys and with studies on the Miocene sediments fromthe Boreal and the Atlantic Provinces. These comparisons show that PE and DF are very similarto results from the Central Paratethys, but that they are significantly higher than in the other areasmentioned.


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